Adenoids

Adenoids

Adenoids are small glands in the throat at the back of the nose. They are like watch dogs fighting germs in younger children. When child gets older they are no longer needed. Adenoids are taken out if they are doing more harm than good.When adenoids very big,child has a blocked nose, leading to mouth breathing,snoring and cessation of breathing for few seconds during sleep.The adenoids can also cause ear problems by blocking the Eustachian's tube.(tube which joins nose to ear) Removing the adenoids may also make colds(upper respiratory infections) less.

Anatomy of nose

Anatomy of nose

Nose is divided in to two chambers by the nasal septum. On the side wall of each chamber, there are three projections called turbinates. They are filled with vascular spaces, therefore pink in colour.These turbinates warm and humidify the inspired air before it reaches the lungs. Nerves for smell are situated at the roof of the nose. Volatile substance in the inhaled air is dissolved in mucous and stimulate the nerve endings.When the nose is blocked with polyps or growth,one cannot get the sense of smell. The widest part of the nose under the nostril with hair is called vestibule.

Hearing Aid

Hearing AidDeteriorating hearing related to advanced age is caused by the progressive destruction of the inner ear and auditory nerve tissues. However, this condition is highly variable as some elderly people have good hearing due to differences of their susceptibility to deafness. Although aged people may hear sound, they may experience difficulty in understanding speech. For this reason, when speaking to them you must pronounce the words clearly to enable them to lip read. Shouting may aggravate the problem.

Puretone Audiogram(PTA)

Puretone Audiogram(PTA)This picture shows a graph with hearing levels of left and right ears. The left ear readings are depicted in blue whilst the right is in red. Pure tone are given to patient's right and left ears separately via head phones and response is plotted on a graph. This is called pure tone audiogram. Patient has to understand the technician's instructions to get reliable results. Therefore we need different methods to test children and mentally retarded adults.

How to insert the ear drops

How to insert the ear dropsThe correct way of administering medicines to the ear. Steps: 1. Patient should lie down with the problem ear outwards. 2. Another person should raise the earlobe slightly. 3. 4-5 drops of medication are poured into the outer ear canal. (Two drops are insufficient). 4. The small cartilage (tragus) in front of the ear is pressed a few times. 5. The patient is kept in this position for about five minutes.

Normal ear drum

Normal ear drum

Fungus with spores in the ear canal

Fungus with spores in the ear canal

Fungal infection of the ear are very common. The outer ear is covered with skin. The skin usually shows resistance to fungi and bacteria.

Removal of foreign body

Removal of foreign body

Small hard foreign body in the outer part of ear canal can be removed with a fine hook. This should be attempted by an experienced doctor under direct vision. If the doctor is not skilled, foreign body can get impacted further.

It is therefore wiser to refer the patient directly to an ENT surgeon who has the skill and correct instruments for extraction of the object.

Cotton bud on the ear drum

Cotton bud on the ear drum

Cotton ball of a cotton bud often get dislodged in the ear.One has to consult an ENT Surgeon for removal of cotton.

Use of cotton buds in the ear to clean wax is totally unnecessary as ear canal has a self cleaning mechanism.Few people who are born without this mechanism need frequent ear cleaning by an experienced doctor.

Foreign body in the ear canal

Foreign body in the ear canal

Insertion of foreign bodies in to the ears is very common among children.If it is in the outer part of ear canal, doctor can remove it under direct vision after holding the child tight.If it is closer to the ear drum,it is safer to remove under general anaesthesia. Small objects which does not absorb water can be syringed out. If a live insect is impacted in the ear,one should first kill it by putting water or clean cocnut or olive oil before syringing is attempted.

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