Examination of throat with mirror

Examination of throat with mirror

This picture depicts examination of voice box with a mirror in the ENT clinic.

Let’s see how voice is produced:

During inspiration (breathing in), the vocal cords move apart and allow air to enter the lungs.

During expiration (breathing out), the vocal cords move close to each other. When we want to make a sound, the vocal cords come together and vibrate to produce the sound.

The oral cavity, tongue, teeth and lips improve the quality of that sound which we perceive as ‘voice’.

How to insert nasal drops

How to insert nasal dropsCorrect method to insert nasal drops: 1) Kneel down on a bed. 2) Keep the vertex of head on the mattress as if standing on the head. 3) Insert two drops in to each nostril. 4) Remain in this position for one minute before you get up.

CSF(Fluid around the brain) Leak

CSF(Fluid around the brain) LeakThe brain is located within the skull cap. Between the brain and the skull, there are membranes (meninges) and a bag of water (cerebro-spinal fluid). The meninges may get damaged when the skull fractures. Fluid leaks through the nose and ear. This fluid mixed with blood (which makes it difficult to identify just the fluid) may ooze out soon after the accident. But even after the flow of blood ceases, this fluid may continue to ooze out when the head is lowered. Lowering of the head causes increased intra cranial pressure aggravating the flow.

Sinus infection spreading to eye

Sinus infection spreading to eyeThis picture shows a child with an abscess of the eye lid due spread of sinus infection in to the eye. Let's talk about sinus infections. When a cold gets prolonged, a discharge of phlegm (yellow in colour) is usually experienced. If this condition persists, it needs medical attention.

How to squeeze the nose during bleeding

How to squeeze the nose during bleeding

This picture shows how to squeeze the nose as a first aid measure during an episode of bleeding from nose. Keeping an ice cap on the nose also helps to arrest bleeding. These measures work only if bleeding is mild. Nasal bleeding in an adult can be heavy and dangerous. First aid should be administered and the patient taken to hospital as soon as possible. Treatment should be given under the supervision of an ENT Surgeon. Blood loss will be estimated at the hospital and a blood transfusion may be required.

Foreign bodies extracted from nose

Foreign bodies extracted from noseThis picture depicts foreign objects removed from the nose.Children and mentally retarded adults insert objects in to the nose. There is a high risk of a foreign object being pushed further into (up) the nose if an inexperienced person attempts to remove it. Consult an ENT surgeon as soon as possible. A failed attempt by an inexperienced doctor at removing the object may frighten the child. A powerful light source and special instruments are required. Forceps, if used, may scare the child. Harmless instruments like steel rings will be used to remove this.

Deformity of the nose due to collapse of septum

Deformity of the nose due to collapse of septumThis picture shows a saddle nose deformity due to collapse of cartilagenous or bony bridge. Syphilis from birth and tuberculosis are reasons for collapse of bony bridge. Inadvertant surgery of the septum ,use of cocaine in the nose, infection of the cartilagenous septum (septal abscess) are reasons for collapse of cartilagenous bridge.

Deviated Middle partition(septum)

Deviated Middle partition(septum)

The nasal passage is divided in to two by the nasal septum. It has cartilage at the front and bone at the back. When the middle 1/3 of face is injured, nasal septum can get damaged with or without fracture of the nasal bones. In the acute stage, manipulation can correct both the septum and the nasal bones. When a patient presents with nasal obstruction, nasal septum has to be checked for dislocation. The septum can be brought back to its original position by an operation called SEPTOPLASTY.This operation is done under general anesthesia. There are no external cuts involved.

Enlarged turbinates

Enlarged turbinates

Nose is divided in to two chambers by the nasal septum. On the side wall of each chamber, there are three projections called turbinates. They are filled with vascular spaces, therefore pink in colour. Size of turbinates vary with the variations in the blood supply.When they are enlarged,one feels nasal blockade. These turbinates are mistaken for nasal growth by many people.

Nasal Polyps

Nasal Polyps

The exact cause for nasal polyps has not yet been found. People with allergies, catarrh and asthma are more prone to this condition. Children usually do not get nasal polyps. Patients with polyps have blocked runny nose with a reduced sense of smell. They may snore in the night. Polyps, resembling the shape of a bunch of grapes, may be seen during examination. Nasal processes (turbinates) should be distinguished from nasal growths. Many patients mistakenly take these for polyps and seek medical advice. (These processes are pink in colour and are attached tightly to the sidewalls).

Syndicate content