orall thrush due to fungus(Candida)

orall thrush due to fungus(Candida)Plaque is caused by fungi called yeast. These fungi live on our body (e.g. mouth, vagina, anal canal…) but only in healthy amounts because harmless bacteria living in the mouth control their growth. Sometimes, however, when body immunity is low, fungi growth can increase. Immunity becomes low in the following cases: 1. Infants and elderly people. 2. People suffering from diabetics 3. People suffering from AIDS 4. People suffering from cancers

Tonsillectomy instruments

Tonsillectomy instrumentsTonsillectomy is a common operation done in ENT units. Under general anesthesia mouth is kept open by a gag. Tonsil is dissected from its bed with sharp instruments. Bleeding is completely arrested by sutures or electric burning. Patient is kept in ward for 24 hours to observe for bleeding.Patient can go home with pain killers. A normal diet is encouraged for quick healing of wounds.

Ulceration of tonsil due to cancer

Ulceration of tonsil due to cancerThis picture depicts a cancerous ulcer of the tonsillar area with raised edges and a crater.Presenting symptoms are throat pain, ear ache, foreign body sensation of throat, blood stained saliva, difficulty in swallowing and a lump in the neck due to enlargement of lymph nodes. Smokers and alcoholics are prone to get this cancer.Diagnosis is usually late due to late onset of symptoms.

Harmless Tonsillar Cyst

Harmless Tonsillar CystThis indicates a harmless nodule. This is a fluid-filled mass. It will rupture by itself and the fluid can be swallowed. The cause of this nodule is a blockage of a gland opening, causing a cyst. This can become quite large with time. If it causes no pain, no treatment is required. Stop putting your tongue out and examining your throat each time you get hold of a mirror. Formation of more than one cyst can lead to swollen tonsils that require surgical removal.

Enlargement of left tonsil

Enlargement of left tonsilWhen there is unilateral tonsillar enlargement,a cancerous (malignant)lesion has to be suspected. Palpation with a gloved finger is helpful to compare the texture of tonsils.Malignant lesions are firm in consistency. There may be ulceration of the surface. Draining lymph nodes are usually enlarged. To obtain tissue diagnosis, tonsillectomy has to be done under general anesthesia.If the tonsil is ulcerated, small piece can be taken from the ulcer crater. Pathologist's report will be available in a weeks time.If the lesion is cancerous, Oncologists help is required.

Abscess around the tonsil

Abscess around the tonsilThis picture shows a picture of the throat after drainage of the abscess around the tonsil. Drainage can be done with a sharp blade under local anesthetic spray while in the ward. Aspiration of abscess with a wide bore needle also adequate to ease pain and discomfort in opening the mouth. Pus can be sent to laboratory for bacterial analysis.

Abscess around the tonsil

Abscess around the tonsilTonsillar infections can spread to surrounding tissues causing an abscess called peri tonsillar abscess.Patient presents with severe pain, difficulty in opening mouth,ear ache,muffled speech,dysphagia and drooling.On examination, throat shows swollen displaced uvula. Patient may or may not have recurrent tonsillitis.Causative organisms are different from acute tonsillitis.

Tonsilitis with enlarged tonsils

Tonsilitis with enlarged tonsilsTonsillitis is seen mostly among children. Tonsils help fight germs that invade our bodies. Tonsils in children are bigger and become smaller in size with age. ‘Viral’ infections can also cause throat pain but tonsillitis is caused by a bacterium called Streptococcus. Symptoms of tonsillitis are fever, difficulty in swallowing, change of voice and earache. Examination will show multiple yellow spots on the tonsil. The entire throat looks inflamed. Pain killers and antibiotics are administered under medical supervision.

nodules of voice box due to over use

nodules of voice box due to over useThis picture shows a magnified view of the voice box(vocal cords)taken during microlaryngoscopy. Triangular gap between the vocal cords allows air to pass through to lungs.There are two white nodules seen on the vocal cords. These nodules are formed due to excessive use of voice.(common problem among teachers and preachers)

camera to see the nose and throat

camera to see the nose and throatOur voice is generated in the voice box (vocal cords) in the neck at the mid level of the adams apple. This cannot be seen with a torch by an ordinary doctor. ENT surgeons visualise the vocal cords in the clinic using a warmed mirror through mouth or a flexible camera through the nose. Patient is very comfortable with the camera as there is no induction of gag.(common problem with the mirror through mouth)Patient can talk while doctor is looking through the camera. This is a basic test in the modern ENT clinic.
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