Throat and Head and Neck Surgeries


  • Throat and Head and Neck Surgeries
  • SUB MANDIBULAR SALIVARY GLAND SWELLING- There is a visible lump below the jaw. This swelling is due to enlargement of submandibular salivary gland. There are six salivary glands in the body. Parotid glands are situated behind the ear. Submandibular salivary glands are situated under the mandible. Sub lingual salivary glands are situated under the tongue.
  • Stone of submandibular duct- Two stones are seen in an x ray of the floor of the mouth. These stones are lodged in the ducts(drainage tube) of a salivary gland situated at the floor of the mouth. Patient has severe pain during meals associated with swelling under the lower jaw. Pain is due to saliva accumulation in the gland as the stones are not allowing the flow.
  • IMPACTED WISDOM TEETH - PANORAMIC VIEW- When a person gets ear ache without a ear problem doctor has to suspect problems in teeth. Commonest dental problem causing earache is impacted wisdom teeth. This X Ray shows impaction of all four wisdom teeth. This is a special X ray of all 32 teeth in one film. It is called orthopantomogram. X rays are sent panoramically to take picture of all the teeth. So it is very convenient for the doctor to diagnose and treat dental problems.
  • Dysphagia due to Anaemia- Iron Defeciency anaemia,difficulty in swallowing due oesophageal web , smooth tongue (glossitis) and spoon shaped nails are associated together as a syndrome called Plummer Vinson Syndrome. Patients are post menapausal women.They present with dysphagia and burning sensation of mouth. Barium swallow shows the web. Treated by correction of anaemia with iron supplements and dilatation of the web by passing a rigid tube oesophagoscope.THis condition is pre malignant. Patients need life long follow up for oesophageal cancer.
  • Heimlic's manouvre

    A peritonsillar abscess forms in the tissues of the throat next to the tonsils.

  • Intubation Granuloma

    The tongue is divided into 2 separate anatomical areas, the oral tongue is the part that can be moved. The base of tongue is the part which cannot be seen during examination of the mouth.The cancer of tongue is usually located on the side border, of the oral tongue. It is usually ulcerated and is grayish-pink to red in color. It will often bleed easily if bitten or touched. Small cancers of the oral tongue can be quickly and successfully treated by surgical removal leaving behind little cosmetic or functional change.

  • Cleft Palate
  • Epiglotitis- This picture depicts a swollen red epiglottis , an endotracheal tube under the epiglottis.(which was inserted to secure the airway)Causative organism is a bacterium called Haemophilus influenzae.
  • VOCAL CORD POLYP- This picture depicts a polyp of one vocal cord with normal opposite cord.
  • MUCOCOELE OF LIP- An oral mucocele, is a swelling consisting of collected mucin from a ruptured salivary gland duct, which is usually caused by local trauma. It has a bluish translucent color, and is more commonly found in children and young adults.The size of oral mucoceles vary from 1 mm to several centimeters. Their duration lasts from days to years, and may have recurrent swelling with occasional rupturing of its contents.Some mucoceles spontaneously resolve on their own after a short time. Others are chronic and require surgical removal.
  • Ranula- A ranula is a swelling found on the floor of the mouth. They present as a swelling of collected mucin from a ruptured salivary gland duct, which is usually caused by local trauma. The latin rana means frog, and a ranula is so named because its appearance is sometimes compared to a frog's underbelly.The gland that most likely causes a ranula is the sublingual gland.Rarely submandibular gland may be involved.
  • torus palatinus- Torus palatinus is a bony growth on the palate, usually present on the midline of the hard palate. Palatal tori are more common in Asian and Inuit populations, and twice more common in females. Palatal tori are usually a clinical finding with no treatment necessary.[2] It is possible for ulcers to form on the area of the tori due to repeated trauma. Also, the tori may complicate the fabrication of dentures. If removal of the tori is needed, surgery can be done to reduce the amount of bone present.
  • stroboscopy-


  • USE OF CPAP MACHINE IN OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNOEA- The first picture shows normal open air way during sleep.Air enters through nose and goes to trachea. The tongue and the palate is in normal position.
  • facial nerve palsy- Facial Nerve Injuries and Paralysis There are actually two facial nerves, one on each side of the head. The facial nerve or 7th cranial nerve is known as a "cranial nerve" since it starts in the brain. It then sends branches out to the face, neck, salivary glands (secrete saliva into the mouth), and the outer ear. A normal functioning facial nerve allows us to move our face and neck (smile, frown, wrinkle our nose and forehead), secrete saliva, lets the front of the tongue "taste" food, and makes us cough when something is placed in the ear.
  • Coin the throat- Small children swallow coins and it is very common all over the world. Although coins are stuck in the food passage,child may get breathing difficulty due to compression of the air way. Therefore it is necessary to take the child to hospital as soon as possible. In the hospital, coin will be removed under anesthesia.
  • Tonsillectomy - Patient Education Leaflet-